Relocating the Egyptian Temples of Abu Simbel, 1964-1968

In 1964, one of the world's largest and most spectacular dismantling and re-development projects was started in Egypt. To save the ancient temples at Abu Simbal from the waters of the Nile, the temples had to be moved.

Built more than 3,000 years ago, Abu Simbal has two temples, which are carved into a hill. There are four huge sculptures of Pharaoh Rameses II (1303–1213 BC), sitting in a large section of two temples, with entrance gates at about 69 feet (21 m) in height. The entrance to the temple was designed in such a way that on two days of the year, 22 October and 22 February, the sunlight shines in the inner sanctum and lights the three idols sitting on a bench including a pharaoh. Historians think that these dates symbolize his coronation and birth.

In addition, Abu Simbal has a second, smaller, temple probably built for Queen Niftari. In its front are two statues of Queen and four again, each with a height of about 33 feet (10 meters). Each is set between the hieroglyphs, carved with hieroglyphs. While the site was built by an Egyptian ruler, and is located within modern-day Egypt, the place where it was located in ancient times was considered part of Nubia, a region that was independent of ancient Egypt.

With the passage of time, the temples fell into disarray and were covered with remnants. By the 6th century BCE, sand had already covered the statues of the main temple to its knees. The temple was forgotten until 1813, when Swiss orientalist Jean-Louis Burckhardt found the top of the main temple. Burckhardt talked about his discovery with the Italian explorer Giovanni Belzoni, who moved to the site, but was unable to exclude entering the temple. Belgoni returned in 1817, this time succeeding in his attempt to enter the complex.

In the 1960s, the new Aswan Dam was built to control the Nile uneven floods and generate electricity for Egypt's rapid aggregation. About two dozen archaeological sites had to be relocated to protect from the rising waters of the newly constructed Lessor. The Temple of Phila, a popular attraction in Aswan was one such site, but the requirements of Abu Symbol were even more epic.

Giant figures of Oversen, Rameses II, were carefully sliced ​​into a series of 20-ton blocks by UNESCO and away from the lake pieces, before slowly fitting back together like a giant game of Tetris in a special artificial reef. . gone. The entire operation took four years and cost US $ 300 million in today's money. But this transfer went so precisely that twice a year, in February and February, the rising sun enters the interior of the temple, illuminating the inner sanctum of the sun god as it did when the temple was built. . had gone.

The new site was about 200 meters inland and 65 meters above.

Between 1964 and 1968, the entire site was cut into large blocks (up to 30 tons, on average 20 tons), dismantled, lifted, and reassembled to a new location.

Using tools ranging from hands to bulldozers, statues and temples were carved into 20-ton blocks, which were put back together on the new site.

Assured Riussemp for over-accuracy, with a small tolerance of only plus or minus 5 millimeters.

The reconstructed temple oriented the sun at certain times of the year, illuminating the interior, according to the original temple.

The shifting of the temples was necessary or they may have sunk during the construction of Lake Nasser, the large artificial water reservoir built after the construction of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River.

A total of 22 monuments and complexes were moved by 40 technical missions from five continents.

The complex is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Nubian Monuments".

The rehabilitation was carried out under the supervision of a Polish archaeologist, Kazimierz Michlowski.

The twin temples were originally taken out of the hill in the 13th century BC, during the reign of the 19th dynasty of Pharaoh Ramesses II.

They serve as a permanent memorial to the king and his queen Nefratari, and applaud their victory in the Battle of Kadesh.

Transferring the temples of Abu Simbal.

This 19th-century image of David Roberts shows emerging statues.

A model showing the origin and current location of the temple (in relation to the water level) at the Nubian Museum in Aswan.

No comments:

Powered by Blogger.