Heartbreaking Dust Bowl’s photographs taken by Dorothea Lange during the 1930s

The term Dust Bowl was coined in 1935 when an AP reporter, Robert Geiger, used it to describe the drought-hit south-central United States after a severe dust storm.

Historically, the Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that caused much damage to the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian basins during the 1930s.

The phenomenon occurred due to severe drought and failure to implement dry land farming methods to prevent aeolian processes (wind erosion). The drought came in three waves: 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940, but some areas of the High Plains experienced drought conditions for up to eight years.

From Texas to Nebraska, strong winds and choking dust killed people and livestock and damaged crops across the region.

The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic effects of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.

Dorothea Lang's photography, as shown in this collection, is closely linked to the American farmers' struggle against drought and dust in the Depression era.

In the depths of the 1933 worldwide recession, the U.S. About fourteen million people were out of work in the U.S.; Many were homeless, drifting aimlessly, often not having enough food to eat. Drought and dust storms in the Midwest and Southwest added to the economic devastation.

During the 1930s about 300,000 men, women and children moved west to California in the hope of finding work. Broadly speaking, these migrant families were called opprobrium "Okies" (from Oklahoma), regardless of where they came from.

They traveled in old, dilapidated cars or trucks, moving from place to place to follow crops. Lang began taking photographs of these lucky people, leaving his studio to document their lives on the streets and streets of California.

She walked along the way with her camera, portraying the extent of the social and economic upheaval of the Depression.

Lang developed a personal technique of talking with his subjects while working, keeping them at ease, and enabling them to document relevant observations with photography. Headlines and comments often revealed personal information about his subjects.

Between 1930 and 1940, about 3.5 million people moved out of the plains. In just one year, more than 86,000 people moved to California.

This number exceeds the number of migrants from that area during the 1849 gold rush. Migrants left farms in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico, but were often referred to as "Okeys", "Arkies", or "Taxis".

In the 1930s words such as "Okaes" and "Arkeys" became known as standard words for people who had lost everything and were struggling the most during the Great Depression.

However, not all migrants traveled long distances; Most of the migrants took part in internal state migration, moving from counties that the Dust Bowl overwhelms other less affected counties.

So many families were moving from their farms that the ratio between migrants and residents was almost equal in the Great Plains states.

An examination of Census Bureau statistics and other records, and a 1939 survey of occupations by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of nearly 116,000 households that arrived in California in the 1930s, revealed that only 43 percent of Southwesterners engaged in agricultural work just before their migration. Were were

About a third of all migrants were professional or white-collar workers. Particularly for farmers, while some of them had to do unskilled labor when they relocated, leaving the agricultural sector generally brought more social mobility in the future as there was a high likelihood that migrant farmers would later become semi-skilled or highly skilled workers. I will go -Efficient sectors that paid better.

Non-farmers experienced more downward occupational moves than farmers, but in most cases, this was not enough to bring them into poverty, as high-skilled migrants experienced a downward shift to semi-skilled work. experience was most likely to occur.

While semi-skilled work as well as high-skilled work were not paid, most of these workers were not poor. For the most part, by the end of the Dust Bowl, migrants were generally better off than those who chose to stay behind according to their occupational changes.

After the Great Depression ended, some migrants went back to their native states. Many others remained where they had settled. About one-eighth of California's population is of Oki heritage.

The crisis was documented by photographers, musicians and writers, many hired by the federal government during the Great Depression. For example, the Agricultural Security Administration hired several photographers to document the crisis.

The work of independent artists was also influenced by the crises of the Dust Bowl and the Depression. The author John Steinbeck, borrowing closely from field notes taken by FSA activist and author Sanora Babb, wrote The Grapes of Wrath (1939) about migrant workers and farm families displaced by the Dust Bowl.

Bub's own novel about the lives of migrant workers, whose name is unknown, was written in 1939, but was eclipsed and shelved in response to the success of Steinbeck's work, and eventually published in 2004.

Many of folk singer Woody Guthrie's songs, such as his 1940 album Dust Bowl Ballads, are about his experiences in the Dust Bowl era during the Great Depression, when he traveled with displaced farmers from Oklahoma to California and shared his traditional folk and folk songs. Learn. Blues songs, earning him the nickname "Dust Bowl Troubledore".

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