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The Big Three at the Tehran Conference, 1943


Tehran was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943.

It was held at the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conventions of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom).

The conference was to be held on 28 November 1943 at 16:00. Stalin arrived much earlier, followed by Roosevelt, in a wheelchair from his residence adjacent to the venue.

Roosevelt, who had traveled 7,000 miles (11,000 km) to participate and whose health was already deteriorating, met with Stalin. It was the first time they had met. Churchill, accompanied by his General Staff, arrived half an hour later, walking from his residence.

America and Great Britain wanted to secure the cooperation of the Soviet Union in defeating Germany. Stalin agreed, but at a cost: the U.S. And Britain would accept Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, support Yugoslav radicals, and agree to a westward shift of the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.


The leaders then turned to the conditions under which the Western Allies would open a new front by invading northern France (Operation Overlord), as Stalin had pressured them to do since 1941.

Up to this point, Churchill had advocated the expansion of joint operations of British, American and Commonwealth forces in the Mediterranean Sea, as physically impossible in 1943 due to the lack of Overlord shipping, which made the Mediterranean and Italy viable targets for 1943. left as. ,

It was agreed that the overlord would arrive by May 1944; Stalin agreed to support this by launching a concurrent major offensive on Germany's Eastern Front to remove German forces from northern France.

In addition, the Soviet Union was required to support Turkey if that country entered the war. Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed that it would also be most desirable if Turkey entered the Allied side before the year ended.

Despite accepting the above arrangements, Stalin dominated the conference. He used the prestige of the Soviet victory at the Battle of Kursk to get his way.

Roosevelt attempted to counter the onslaught of Stalin's demands, but could do nothing but appease Stalin. Churchill offered Stalin a move to the west of Poland, which was accepted by Stalin, giving the Poles an industrialization of German lands in the west and leaving the marshy lands in the east while providing the Soviet Union a territorial buffer against invasion. Gave.


Stalin proposed the execution of 50,000–100,000 German officers so that Germany could not plan for another war. Roosevelt, not considering Stalin serious, joked that "maybe 49,000 would suffice".

However, Churchill was outraged and condemned the "cold-blooded executions of soldiers who fought for their country". He said that only war criminals should be prosecuted according to the Moscow document, which he himself wrote.

He left the room, but was brought back by Stalin, who said he was joking. Churchill was happy that Stalin had relented, but he thought Stalin was testing the waters.

Notice in the pictures that each leader is sitting on a different type of chair. It is especially heavily documented during that era how important chairs were to their leaders.

So the trio took their favorite chairs with them wherever they had to sit. Maybe that's why there are 3 different chairs in the photo.

Roosevelt was the only person who did not have an actual military rank. Stalin never wore a military uniform before 1943, when he received the military rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.

He is wearing the regular uniform of the marshal in this picture. Churchill ended his army career as a lieutenant colonel in the Territorial Army (which is like the Army Reserve).

The uniform he is wearing there is that of RAF Air Commodore, who is the U.S. Army Commander. One-Star rank. He was often seen wearing that uniform in WWII, as he was awarded an honorary rank by RAF Squadron in 1939.

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